Glossary

An overview of the BAV metrics, the scores available, and what insights the metrics give you when analysing brands.

Types of Scores

There are three types of scores that are available for different metrics. In the table of metrics below you will see which metric has which type of scores.

Base Sizes

NameDescriptionAvailable Scores
Brand BaseRepresents the weighted number of respondents that rated the brand in the Knowledge metric, any range score of 2 through 7.Value
Unweighted Brand BaseRepresents the actual number of respondents that rated the brand in the Knowledge metric, any range score of 2 through 7. Any brand with an unweighted brand base of less than 100 should be used with caution.Value
Usage & Preference Brand BaseTotal number of respondents that have answered questions within the usage and preference section only. There may or may not be overlap with respondents in other BAV survey sections.Value

Equity

Brand Equity is defined by Four Pillars as the foundation of the BAV® model. Healthy brands develop the pillars in a very specific order: Differentiation, Relevance, Esteem, then Knowledge. The Four Pillars are combined to form two dimensions – Strength & Stature – to capture a snapshot of a brand’s position in culture.

MetricGroupDescriptionAvailable Scores
DifferentiationPillarsThis is what makes a brand special compared to everything else in the market. It’s differentiating point could relate directly to it’s product or service, or something less tangible such as prestige, innovation or purpose. Brands with high differentiation scores build deeper emotional connections with consumers. It isn’t always positive. Like people, highly divisive brands can be highly differentiated but not liked or wanted.Percentile Rank
RelevancePillarsCorresponds to a brand’s ability to be meaningful and have personal appropriateness in the lives of consumers given their stage of life, household budget, and all their unique preferences and priorities. It is the cost-of-entry to using the brand, capturing both market penetration and staying power. In fact, some of the world’s most coveted brands often score poorly on relevance because of market penetration.Percentile Rank
EsteemPillarsMeasures the extent to which consumers like a brand and hold it in high regard. Quality, trust, leadership, reliability, respect, admiration, and personality traits such as likability are all part of esteem. It captures how well a brand fulfils its implied or overtly stated consumer promise, resulting in repeated usage.Percentile Rank
KnowledgePillarsRepresents how well consumers understand and have internalized what a brand stands for based on familiarity. It embodies the end result of marketing and communications efforts and what experience consumers have had. A high knowledge score is the result of strength on the other three pillars. When consumers are excited by a brand they feel is different, relevant and one that they respect they want to find out more about it. As a result, Knowledge increases.Percentile Rank
Brand StrengthPowergridDifferentiation & Relevance make up Brand Strength. Brand Strength captures future growth value and a sense of momentum and energy behind a brand.Percentile Rank
Brand StaturePowergridEsteem & Knowledge are the foundation of Brand Stature. Brand Stature reflects current perceived performance and mass of a brand in the marketplace.Percentile Rank

Advocacy

Advocacy in BAV covers various metrics including Usage, Preference, Passion, and Awareness. Brand advocacy shows brands by category and is the only section that is not category-agnostic.

Usage

For Usage, respondents are asked on a 4-point scale from Regularly Used to Never Used or on a 3-point scale from Currently Owned to Never Owned – dependent on the category.

MetricDescriptionAvailable Scores
Use RegularlyI use this brand quite often. Usage style: Respondents read it as “Use Regularly” or “Currently Own” depending on the category.Percentage
Use OccasionallyI use this brand sometimes, and sometimes I use a different brand.Percentage
Lapsed UserI’m not currently using the brand, but have used it in the past OR I have possessed this brand in the past and have chosen not to engage with it. Usage style: Respondents read it as “Lapsed User” or “Have owned but don’t anymore” depending on the category.Percentage
Never UsedI’ve not used this brand before and am not currently using it OR I’ve not owned this brand before and am not currently in possession of it. Usage style: Respondents read it as “Never Used” or “Never Owned” depending on the category.Percentage
Total UsersSum of percent of respondents for a given brand of the top two usage choices (Use Regularly and Use Occasionally).Percentage

Preference

MetricDescriptionAvailable Scores
One I PreferRefers to “One Brand I Prefer”. This is the brand I select if it’s available. It’s my first choice.Percentage
One of SeveralRefers to “One of Several Brands I Prefer”. The brand is one of a group I’d be happy to choose from.Percentage
Only If No AlternativeRefers to “Only Brand If No Alternative”. I would use this brand, but only out of desperation.Percentage
Would Never ConsiderRefers to “Would Never Consider This Brand”. Under no circumstances would I use this brand.Percentage
Total PrefersSum or percent of respondents for a given brand of the top two preference choices (One Brand I Prefer and One of Several Brands I Prefer).Percentage

Recommendation

MetricDescriptionAvailable Scores
Recommend to a FriendI’d happily tell a friend this is a good brand.Percentage

Love

MetricDescriptionAvailable Scores
Most LovedLove 6&7 refers to “Most Loved” the highest scores on a sliding 7-point scalar rating brands from love to hate. It means high engagement and devotion to a brand. When people love a brand, they tend to recommend it to friends and family, and love can become amplified, especially in the age of social media.Percentage, Percentile Rank
PassionateThe highest choice on the love/hate 7-point scalarPercentage
AdoreThe second highest choice on the love/hate 7-point scalarPercentage
AppreciateThe third highest choice on the love/hate 7-point scalarPercentage
Indifferent
The middle choice on the love/hate 7-point scalar
Percentage
Uninterested
The third to lowest choice on the love/hate 7-point scalar
Percentage
DislikeThe second lowest choice on the love/hate 7-point scalarPercentage
AversionThe lowest choice on the love/hate 7-point scalarPercentage
Most HatedDisapprove, disengagement and perhaps even aversion to a brand. Based on our “love-o-meter” we ask consumers to rate how they feel about a brand on a sliding scale from love to hate. When people hate a brand, they tend to voice their negative opinion to friends and family, and hate can become amplified, especially in the age of social media.Percentage, Percentile Rank

Awareness

MetricDescriptionAvailable Scores
Aided AwarenessTotal prompted awareness based on 2-7 of the the 7-point Knowledge scalar.Percentile Rank

Personality

Brands make an impression on consumers in much the same way as other people do. That’s why many of the words people use to describe other people could also apply to brands: they have personalities and create memories. BAV measures all brands on imagery characteristics to evaluate the influence they have on consumers.

Personality Types

Personality Types are themes that categorize various perceptual dimensions across all brands, markets and years. They are based on a foundation the imagery attributes (below) and are comprised of an average of specific attributes.

MetricDescriptionAvailable Scores
EstablishedHas longevity and is well known in its category. Brands like this tend to be seen as original, authentic, traditional and “the best”. Examples in the US market are Band-Aid and Coca-Cola.
Attributes: Best Brand, Traditional, Leader, Original, Authentic.
Percentage, Percentile Rank

Distinguished
Successful and worthy of respect. These are brands associated with style, prestige, glamor and being “upper class”, like Rolex, Ritz-Carlton and Harvard University.
Attributes: Stylish, Sensuous, Prestigious, Glamorous, Upper Class
Percentage, Percentile Rank

Dependable
Loyal and consistently reliable. Brands like Michelin, Bose and Duracell are in this category, linked by consumers to attributes such as reliability, ruggedness, high performance and high quality.
Attributes: Reliable, High Performance, High Quality, Rugged
Percentage, Percentile Rank

Bold
Confident, courageous and willing to take a risk. Brands that are creative, energetic, dynamic and daring – such as NASA, Cirque du Soleil, Nike and Marvel – enter the “bold” category.
Attributes: Creative, Energetic, Dynamic, Daring
Percentage, Percentile Rank

Hip
On trend, fashionable. Cool, trendy and gaining in popularity, brands like Nintendo Switch, YouTube and Air Jordan can be classed as “hip”.
Attributes: Cool, Trendy, Gaining in Popularity
Percentage, Percentile Rank

Inventive
Able to think and act in new, creative ways. Brands that consumers associate with being progressive, visionary, innovative and intelligent have this personality type, eg Apple, Google, Tesla, IKEA.
Attributes: Progressive, Visionary, Innovative, Intelligent
Percentage, Percentile Rank

Spirited
Full of energy and enthusiasm. Brands that consumers rate for being fun, friendly, kind, sociable and caring fall into this category (eg Disney, Sesame Street, Crayola).
Attributes: Fun, Friendly, Kind, Social, Carefree, Charming
Percentage, Percentile Rank
PurposefulFocused on a mission and determined to achieve it. When brand are considered by consumers to be trustworthy, socially responsible, caring and helpful (like the Make-A-Wish Foundation or the Mayo Clinic), they have this personality type.
Attributes: Trustworthy, Socially Responsible, Cares for Customers, Helpful
Percentage, Percentile Rank
DistantReserved, remote and a little unfriendly. These are brands that are regarded by consumers as unapproachable or arrogant, and the result is a sense of distance. Brands generating this feeling include PETA, Fox News and Bitcoin.
Attributes: Unapproachable, Arrogant
Percentage, Percentile Rank
AccessibleEasygoing, informal and widely available. Brands like Walmart, ALDI and Jell-O are strong examples of brands we call “accessible”. They’re seen as good value, simple, and down to earth.
Attributes: Good Value, Simple, Straightforward, Down To Earth
Percentage, Percentile Rank

Imagery Attributes

The foundation of personality are the 48 imagery attributes. They are asked in the survey as “We would like to know whether or not you associate each characteristic with each brand”. All attributes are asked and defined in a category-agnostic manner. BAV has had 48 imagery attributes consistently since inception. Some attributes have been changed over the years.

MetricDescriptionAvailable Scores
DifferentStands out from other brands and what they offer; not the norm, perhaps a little unexpected.Percentage, Percentile Rank
DistinctiveHas characteristics that are unique to that brand, and perhaps stands out in a positive way.Percentage, Percentile Rank
ArrogantProjects a sense of superiority or high opinion of oneself, perhaps without justification. Negative, contempt for customers; ignores other people.Percentage, Percentile Rank
AuthenticThe real thing – genuine and true to what it claims to be. Not artificial; with a pedigree.Percentage, Percentile Rank
Best BrandThe one that’s superior to everything else or thought of the best brand in its category.Percentage, Percentile Rank
CarefreeUnrestrained by responsibilities or stress – happy, bubbly, lighthearted.Percentage, Percentile Rank
Cares for ConsumersMakes customers feel their needs and preferences are a high priority. Can also mean responsive to needs without necessarily being leading edge or about making money.Percentage, Percentile Rank
CharmingExhibits traits that allures or captivates; Pleasant, likeable, perhaps enchanting.Percentage, Percentile Rank
CoolFashionably attractive, popular, or impressive in some way; a brand that is “with it”.Percentage, Percentile Rank
CreativeImaginative and inventive, perhaps artistic or good at problem-solving.Percentage, Percentile Rank
DaringProjects a spirit of boldness and adventure; willing to take risks.Percentage, Percentile Rank
Down To EarthEasygoing, relaxed and accessible to everyone; matter-of-fact, objectve, practical, pragmatic, realistic.Percentage, Percentile Rank
DynamicHas a sense of energy, movement and change about it; perhaps excitement.Percentage, Percentile Rank
EnergeticLively, full of vigor and on the move; disposed to action.Percentage, Percentile Rank
FriendlyA brand that feels like an affable, approachable, sociable companion; not patronising.Percentage, Percentile Rank
FunOffers lively, lighthearted pleasure and a good time; not serious.Percentage, Percentile Rank
Gaining In PopularityA brand that’s on an upward trend to achieve notoriety, reputation, or celebrity.Percentage, Percentile Rank
GlamorousAlluring and elegantly beautiful; often exciting.Percentage, Percentile Rank
Good ValuePrice-value relationship; value for money.Percentage, Percentile Rank
HealthyExudes wellness and is associated with feeling fit and well.Percentage, Percentile Rank
HelpfulObliging and useful – a handy brand to have around; functional but caring.Percentage, Percentile Rank
High PerformanceA peak or elevated way of functioning; designed to achieve greatness and excellence.Percentage, Percentile Rank
High QualityFitness for its purpose; well made and well designed for the job.Percentage, Percentile Rank
IndependentFree-thinking, confident and self-sufficient – no need to rely on others.Percentage, Percentile Rank
InnovativeOffers new and original ideas, technology, functions or design; leading-edge and pushing back the frontiers.Percentage, Percentile Rank
IntelligentClever and quick-witted, this is a brand with a sharp mind.Percentage, Percentile Rank
KindThoughtful, generous and always ready with a helping hand; general concern for others.Percentage, Percentile Rank
LeaderA brand that’s perceived as being ahead of the pack, setting standards for others / guiding.Percentage, Percentile Rank
OriginalThe first of its kind, often forging a new path.Percentage, Percentile Rank
PrestigiousInspires respect and admiration as a result of its high status; overall admired.Percentage, Percentile Rank
ProgressiveOpen to new ideas and in tune with the times. Sense of forward motion, associated with reform, innovation and positive change.Percentage, Percentile Rank
ReliableConsistently performs in the way consumers expect; functional performance, won’t break-down.Percentage, Percentile Rank
RuggedAppealingly strong and tenacious.Percentage, Percentile Rank
SensuousAttractive and gratifying to the physical eye; perhaps seductive or sexy but not limited to.Percentage, Percentile Rank
SimpleReadily understood or performed, Nothing complicating or unnecessary; unpretentious.Percentage, Percentile Rank
SocialGood-natured, approachable and happy in the company of friends.Percentage, Percentile Rank
Socially ResponsibleA brand that acts in a way that benefits society; accountable and ethical towards social systems, community, and/or environment.Percentage, Percentile Rank
StraightforwardDirect, honest and uncomplicated; can be taken at face-value.Percentage, Percentile Rank
StylishFashionably elegant and good-looking; contemporary.Percentage, Percentile Rank
TraditionalTime-honored and considered established with strong roots & values, perhaps a little unadventurous.Percentage, Percentile Rank
TrendyUp with the very latest fashions.Percentage, Percentile Rank
TrustworthyHonest and honorable.Percentage, Percentile Rank
UnapproachableNot welcoming or friendly, perhaps cold, remote, aloof, or even not very human.Percentage, Percentile Rank
UniqueOne of a kind, unlike anything else.Percentage, Percentile Rank
Up To DateIn sync with the latest developments and trends; appropriate to the moment.Percentage, Percentile Rank
Upper ClassUpmarket and exclusive; holds a high social position.Percentage, Percentile Rank
VisionaryHaving a point of view, perhaps a futuristic perspective; enterprising and insightfu.lPercentage, Percentile Rank
Worth MoreMore expensive than average, but the perceived quality or value easily merits a higher price; a measure of desirability.Percentage, Percentile Rank

Do you see any metrics in your data output that has not been defined in the glossary? Don’t worry! Please go ahead with using them as they are most likely unique to that year or market.

We have several metrics that have changed over the years, dropped from our surveys, or are specific to a market. The terms in this document are consistent across markets today. If you have any specific questions, please contact BAV Support.

Audiences

NameDescription
All AdultsAll respondents, people who are aged 18+. Also sometimes referred to as “Total Population”
FemaleRespondents who identify as female, aged 18+
MaleRespondents who identify as male, aged 18+
29 and underRespondents who are aged 29 and under
Age 30-49Respondents who are aged between 30 and 49
Under 50Respondents who are aged under 50
Age 50+Respondents who are aged 50 and above
Under 35Respondents who are aged under 35
Age 35 PlusRespondents who are aged 35 and above
Female under 35Females who are aged under 35
Female 35 and overFemales who are aged 35 and above
Male under 35Males who are aged under 35
Male 35 and overMales who are aged 35 and above
MillennialsRespondents who are aged within the years that classify them as “Millennials”
BoomersRespondents who are aged within the years that classify them as “Boomers”
Adults with KidsRespondents (18+) with children of any age
Adults with no kidsRespondents (18+) who do not have any children
Adults with Kids under 6Respondents (18+) who have children that are under the age of 6
Adults with Kids 0-11Respondents (18+) who have children that are aged 11 and under
Married or Living w PartnerRespondents (18+) who are married or living with a partner
MothersFemales who have children of any age
Primary Grocery ShoppersRespondents (18+) who consider themselves as the primary shopper of groceries for their household
BDM“Business Decision Maker”, those who identify themselves as a primary decision maker within their organization
ManagersRespondents (18+) who consider themselves as a “Manager” within their organization; one that takes on managerial responsibilities
4Cs – InnovatorsConsumer segmentation audience that represents respondents who think of themselves as “Explorerers” or “Reformers”. These consumers’ core value is discovery and to seek authentic experiences.
4Cs – Early AdoptersConsumer segmentation audience that represents respondents who think of themselves as “Aspirerers” or “Succeeders”. These consumers are goal-oriented and care about status and control.
4Cs – Middle MajorityConsumer segmentation audience that represents respondents who think of themselves as “Mainstreamers”. These consumers care about routine and security, and support brands that are family-oriented with good value.
4Cs – LaggardsConsumer segmentation audience that represents respondents who think of themselves as “Struggling” or “Resigned”. These consumers either care about survival or desire to seek an escape.
HispanicsRespondents (18+) who identify as having Hispanic or Latino origin